Day 2 :
CSIRO Manufacturing, Australia
Time : 10:15-11:00
Dr. Zhao Jun Han is the Senior Research Scientist at CSIRO. He was Research Scientist (2012-2015) and the Office of Chief Executive Postdoctoral Fellow (2009-2012). He graduated from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, with both B.Eng and Ph.D degrees in Electrical and Electronic Engineering. He is the recipient of CSIRO’s Julius Career Award (2014), Australian Research Council’s DECRA fellowship (2013), and the Institute of Engineering Singapore Award (2007). His research topics include the synthesis and application of carbon nanomaterials, energy storage devices, water purification, and biomedical engineering.
Transition metal oxides such as MnO2 and RuO2 are promising materials for achieving both high power and energy densities in energy storage devices. However, it remains a great challenge to develop these metal oxides-based high-performance electrodes due to their low electrical conductance and poor stability. At CSIRO we have studied a number of metal oxides such as mixed-valent MnO2 nanoparticles, MnO2 nanowires, and RuO2 nanofilms, and combined them with carbon-based nanostructures including graphite films and graphene, to fabricate nanohybrids in synergistic integration. We demonstrated controlled size, density, composition and morphology of the metal oxides, and developed several approaches such as plasma and electrochemical surface treatments to effectively improve the interfacial adhesion between metal oxides and carbon supports. The nanohybrids show both high specific capacitance and superior stability, which may open up new opportunities in areas such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, catalysts, photosynthesis, and electrochemical sensors.
Principal Scientist of IPCP and Professor of Chemical Physics in MUPT. Russia
Time : 9:30-10:15
Eugene B. Gordon has completed his PhD in 1970 from Moscow University for Physics and Technology (MUPT) and Doctor of Science degree in 1981 from Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (IPCP), Russian Academy of Sciences. Now he is the Principal Scientist of IPCP and Professor of Chemical Physics in MUPT. He has published more than 160 papers in reputed journals and he is the member of All-Russia Supreme Qualification Committee, the member of Dissertation Councils in the IPCP and in Joint Institute of High Temperatures
The quasi-1D quantized vortices appeared in superfluid helium (He II) represent an ideal template for growing the nanowire from any metal embedded to He II. Using the laser ablation for the metal introduction into He II we have grown at T = 1.5 - 2.0 K the nanowires made of many metals and alloys. Their diameters D dependent on the metal thermodynamic properties ranged from 8 nm for fusible metals to 2 nm for refractory ones, and the structure and shape of nanowires were quite perfect. Generally, the product of our synthesis represents a 3D web of nanowires interconnected by metallic manner. The total area of web grown in one experiment is up to 10 cm2.
Nanowires with thickness of few nanometers are of interest for many applications. In particular they appear to be excellent nanocatalysts: the efficiencies of nanowebs made of gold, palladium, platinum and niobium as the catalysts for CO oxidation were found to be higher than those for the nanoparticles immobilized on alumina. Niobium nanowires demonstrated the size suppression of superconductivity by the mechanism of quantum phase slip; thus they can be used for the qubits and pointed SQUID creation. For alloys the different metals separation along the wire core led to formation of nano-heterostructures with unique properties.
The thin (D <4 nm) nanowires possess unexpectedly low thermal stability: they decay to the chains of separate nanoclusters at temperatures 3 times lower than the melting temperature. The ways to overcome this defect have been outlined.
- Track 7: Nanotechnology in Agriculture and food industry
Dr. Shiwen Huang is a Professor and doctoral supervisor Research and Development Center of Rice Cropping Technology of China.
Various fields, such as medical devices, imaging, sports, biosensing, electronics, drugs, environmental cleanup, cosmetics and sunscreens, textiles, agriculture, and food processing have employed the successful and safe use of nanotechnologies (nanomaterial). However, due to fewer investments being made in agronomy, nanotechnologies have so far been less developed in agronomy than in other disciplines. Currently, their potential use in agriculture, especially for plant protection and production, is an under-explored area in the research community. Nanotechnologies have the potential to improve agricultural production, and to also revolutionize the existing technologies used in various sectors, including agriculture. Nanotechnology may provide concrete solutions for many agriculture-related problems, such as insect pest management programs which currently use traditional methods, as well as the adverse effects of chemical pesticides. Nanomaterial in different forms can be used for the efficient management of insect pests, as well as the formulations of potential insecticides and pesticides. The seed germination rates were increased, growth of crops were promoted, and yields and quality of crop products were increased by using nanomaterial (nanotechnology) for the treatment of seeds. Similarly, when using different energies of nanomaterial (nano-devices) treated water (NMTW) to treat rice diseases pathogenic fungi, the growth rate of fungal colonies (hypha) were promoted. The fungicides were diluted with NMTW, and their functions were significantly improved and enhanced, which inhibited the efficacy to the pathogenic fungi. In this study, the effects of rice disease pathogens treated with NMTW on rice blast Pyricularia oryzae, rice sheath blight Rhizoctonia solani, and bakanae disease Gibberella fujikuroi were assessed. When compared with sterile water, the growth rate of the R. solani was increased from 0.83 to 11.86%, and 0.77 to 11.57% after being treated for 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The growth rate of the P. oryzae increased from 6.42 to 15.00%, and 4.92 to 11.86% after being treated for 96 and 120 hours. In regards to the G. fujikuroi, the growing rate increased from 6.69 to 11.57%, and 1.75 to 5.54% after being treated for 72 and 96 hours, respectively. The Jinggangmycin (a type of biological fungicide) was diluted with the NMTW, and then compared with those diluted with sterile water. When the Jinggangmycin was diluted 1000-fold and 600-fold, the growth inhibiting rate for the R. solani (diluted with the NMTW) increased from 8.08 to 29.48%, and 7.23 to 32.53% compared with that which was diluted with sterile water, respectively, after being treated for 24 hours. The growth inhibiting rate for the R. solani (diluted with the NMTW) increased 30.94 to 63.09%, and 59.81 to 72.13% compared with that which was diluted with sterile water, respectively, after being treated for 48 hours. The isoprothiolane was diluted with NMTW, and then compared with that which was diluted with sterile water. It was found that when the isoprothiolane was diluted 1000-fold and 600-fold, the growth inhibiting rates of the P. oryzae (diluted with the NMTW) increased 9.03 to 27.53%, and 2.78 to 29.30% compared with that which was diluted with sterile water, respectively, after being treated for 72 hours. The growth inhibiting rate of the P. oryzae which was diluted with the NMTW increased 19.70 to 32.50%, and 24.11 to 38.89% when compared to that which was diluted with sterile water, respectively, after being treated for 120 hours.
- Track 13: Nanotechnology and Cosmetics
- Track 16: Nano Devices
- Track 18: Nanotechnology Future Applications
Hajar Alias has completed his PhD from Leeds University, United Kingdom. Her doctoral research was on nanomaterials and synthesis of nanofluids for heat transfer application. Her current research work includes nanomaterials synthesis and characterization, nanofluids application and catalysis. She has published numerous articles in international refereed jurnals and conference proceedings. She is currently a Senior Lecturer at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and also an associate member of IChemE UK.
This research studied the characteristics of nanofluid in a horizontal heat pipe. Nanofluid is a new technology for heat transfer in cooling systems and suspension stability of nanofluid is a major issue since it will affect the performance of nanofluid in heat pipe. The addition of surfactant will increase the dispersion of nanoparticles in base fluid and increase the stability of nanofluid. The objectives of this research are to prepare the stable nanofluid with addition of surfactant and to investigate the stability, properties, and heat characteristics of nanofluid in horizontal heat pipe. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was added to deionized water, the base fluid, with addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as surfactant by two-step method. First, the optimum stability ratio of nanofluid to surfactant PVP was determined. The properties and heat characteristics of nanofluid were analyzed at different concentration of nanofluid and at five different temperatures. From the observation, the alumina nanofluid was stable with the addition of surfactant at ratio 1:2. The thermal conductivity of nanofluids was higher than base fluid and increased as the temperature and concentration increased. Viscosity of nanofluid was also increased with increasing nanoparticle concentration but decreased with temperature. The heat transfer performance of nanofluid was investigated using horizontal heat pipe for continuous fluid flow. The study showed the capability of nanofluids acting as a heat transfer fluids. It showed that nanofluid could absorb more heat than base fluid when hot and cold streams flow in counter current flow.
Merfat Algethami graduated with a Master’s degree in Medical Physics from Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in 2012. In 2013, she started her PhD in the discipline of Medical Radiations at the School of Health and Biomedical sciences at RMIT University. The focus of her research is radiation dose enhancement by bismuth-based nanoparticles
The application of nano-materials and nanoparticles for medical imaging, including computed tomography (CT) imaging, promises to overcome many of the shortcomings of traditional contrast media. In addition, nanoparticles have been shown to enhance the delivered dose in external beam radiotherapy. The optimal nanoparticulate agents need to have a high X-ray attenuation and absorption coefficients, low toxicity, a long blood circulation time, and be cost effective. The purpose of this research is to develop a nanoparticle theranostic agent and test it in currently used clinical procedures, including: (i) diagnostic CT imaging in order to enhance the device sensitivity and local CT numbers through enhancement of the target absorption, increasing the chance of identifying diseases, and; (ii) radiotherapy in order to enhance the effects of radiations on the target tissue. In this study we use bismuth sulfide nanoparticles (Bi2S3 NPs) that are non-toxic and one of the least expensive heavy metal-based nanoparticles. In addition, Bi2S3 NPs improve X-ray attenuation and absorption, making them promising theranostic agents. In this presentation, we will focus on the synthesis and characterisation of the Bi2S3 NPs, as well as their cytotoxicity with lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549). The Bi2S3 NPs and conventional iodinated contrast agents were evaluated and compared for contrast enhancement at an X-ray tube potential of 140 kVp. The dose enhancing effects of Bi2S3 NPs on A549 cells were examined at KV and MV energies. The preliminary results reveal that Bi2S3 NPs possess superior attenuation with CT compared to iodine contrast reagents. The NPs also show radio-sensitisation with cells, displaying dose enhancement at the KV range of X-ray energies and also, to a lesser degree, at the MV ranges. Therefore, Bi2S3 NPs can be considered as valuable theranostic agents.
Hau Nga Yu is a ph.D student. She received her B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Hong Kong University in 2013. Her current research focuses on nanostructure fabrication and thermoelectric interfacial study.
Nanotechnology brought breakthroughs in scientific development. Catalytic ability of gold was neglected before the appearance and analysis of gold nanostructures in the 80s. Gold nanostructures get much attention because of its large compatibility in catalyst, molecular sensing and also more other prospective fields. For better control of performance, shape-controlled gold nanostructures are one of the targets in the industry in this decade. In this paper, a templateless method is introduced to fabricate anisotropic grown gold nano-dendrites by one-step electrodeposition in (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTS)-contained electrolyte. Growing direction of branch and trunk of the dendrites are controlled to provide specific shape and morphology that can enhance their catalytic ability. The kinetics and mechanism of the shape–controlled gold dendrite fabrication are analysed. These shape-controlled gold dendrites present satisfying catalytic performance in selective oxidation of glucose and methanol, which can be promoted to biomedical sensors and methanol fuel cell production.